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Home » Medical Perspectives on Female Genital Cutting

Medical Perspectives on Female Genital Cutting

    Medical Perspectives on Female Genital Cutting

    Listed in order of area and country-specific


    Research topics include FGM and cosmetic surgery, de-infibulation,

    male complications of FGM, medicalization, FGM and pregnancy complications,

    and psycho-socio-sexual complications.

    Almroth, Lars et al. (2001) “Male Complications of Female

    Genital Mutilation.” Social Science & Medicine. 53: 1455-1460.

    Aguga, N.E.N., and V.E. Egwuatu. (1982) “Female Circumcision:

    Management of Urinary Complications.” Journal of Tropical Pediatrics

    28: 248-252.

    Aziz, F.A. (1980) “Gynecologic and Obstetric Complications

    of Female Circumcision.” International Journal of Gynecology

    and Obstetrics. 17: 560-563.

    Daw, E. (1970) “Female Circumcision and Infibulation Complicating

    Delivery.” The Practitioner 204:559-563.

    De Silva, S. (1989) “Obstetric Sequelae of Female Circumcision.”

    European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology


    Dewhurst, C.J. (1964) “Infibulation Complicating Pregnancy.”

    British Medical Journal 2:1442.

    Dirie, Dr. Mahdi and Dr. Gunilla Lindmark. (1991) “A Hospital

    Study of the Complications of Female Circumcision.” Tropical

    Doctor 21: 146-148.

    Douglas, John H. (1998) “Female Circumcision: Persistence

    Amid Conflict.” Health Care for Women Internationally. 6:477-479.

    Duncan, Bettina-Shell. (2001) “The Medicalization of Female

    ‘Circumcision’: Harm Reduction or Promotion of a Dangerous Practice?”

    Social Science & Medicine 52: 1013-1028.

    Epstein D, Graham P, Rimsza M. (2001) “Medical Complications

    of Female Genital Mutilation.” J Am Coll Health 49:275-80.

    Hosken, F. (1976) “Female Circumcision and Fertility in Africa.”

    Women and Health 1:3-11.

    Hosken, F. (1978) “The epidemiology of Female Genital Mutilations.”

    Tropical Doctor 8:150-156.

    Lenzi, E. (1970) “Damage Caused by Infibulation and Infertility.”

    Acta European Fertility 2:47-58.

    Meniru, G.I. (1994). “Female Genital Mutilation (female circumcision).”

    British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 101: 832.

    Morris, R. (1996) “The Culture of Female Circumcision.”

    Advances in Nursing Science 19:43-53.

    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf et. Al. “Female Genital Surgeries:

    The Known, The Unknown, and the Unknowable.” Medical Anthropology

    Quarterly 13(1): 79-106.

    Ruminjo, J. (1992) “Circumcision in Women.” East African

    Medical Journal (September): 477-478.

    Rouzi AA, Aljhadali EA, Amarin ZO, Abul jabbar HS. (2001) “The

    Use of Intrapartum Defibulation in Women with Female Genital Mutilation.”

    British Journal of Gynaecology


    Scwartz, R.L. (1994) “Multiculturalism, Medicine, and the Limits

    of Autonomy: The Practice of Female Circumcision.” Cambridge

    Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 3:431-437.

    Shandall, A. (1967) “Circumcision and Infibulation of Females.”

    Sudan Medical Journal 5:178-212.

    Sheldon, Sally and Stephen Wilkinson. “Female Genital Mutilation

    and Cosmetic Surgery: Regulating Non-Therapeutic Body Modification.”

    Bioethics. Vol. 12 (4): 263-285.

    Toubia, Nahid. (1994) “Female Circumcision as a Public Health

    Issue.” The New England Journal of Medicine. 331: 712.

    Verzin, J.A. (1975) “Sequelae of Female Circumcision.”

    Tropical Doctor 5:163-169.

    Worsley, A. (1938) “Infibulation and Female Circumcision:

    A Study of a Little Known Custom.” Journal of Obstetrics and

    Gynaecology of the British Empire 45:686-691.

    Geographic Focus of Research


    Knight R, Hotchin A, Bayly C, Grover S. “Female Genital Mutilation-

    Experience of the Royal Women’s Hospital, Melbourne.” Australia

    New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol 39: 1.

    Burkina Faso, Mali

    Jones, Heidi, Nafissatou Diop, Ian Askew and Inoussa Kabore. “Female

    Genital Cutting Practices in Burkina Faso and Mali and their Negative

    Health Outcomes.” Studies in Family Planning 30: 219-30.

    Canada, Somalia

    Chalmers B, Hashi KO. (2000) “432 Somali Women’s Birth Experiences

    in Canada After Earlier Female Genital Mutilation.” Birth 27:


    Dirie, Dr. Mahdi and Dr. Gunilla Lindmark. (1991) “Female

    Circumcision in Somalia and Women’s Motives.” Acta Obstet Gynecol

    Scand.. 70.


    Leonard, L. (1996) “Female Circumcision in Southern Chad:

    Origins, Meanings and Current Practice.” Social Science and

    Medicine 43:255-263.


    Caldwell, J., I.O. Orubuloye, and P. Caldwell. (1997) Male and

    Female Circumcision in Africa: From a Regional to a Specific Nigerian

    Examination.” Social Science and Medicine 44:1181-1193.

    Ebong. R. D. (1997) “Female Circumcision and its Health Implications:

    A Study of the Iruan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.”

    Health. Vol. 117:2.

    Ogunlola IO, Orji EO, Owalabi AT. (2003) “Female Genital Mutilation

    and the Unborn Female Child in Southwest Nigeria.” Journal

    of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 23:143-5.

    Okonofua, FE, Larsen U, Oronsaye F, Snow RC, Slanger TE. (2002)

    “The Association Between Female Genital Cutting and Correlates

    of Sexual and Gynaecological Morbidity in Edo State, Nigeria.”

    British Journal of Gynaecology. 1089-1096.

    Slanger, TE, Snow RC and Okonofua FE. (2002) “The Impact of

    Female Genital Cutting on First Delivery in Southwest Nigeria.”

    Studies in Family Planning 23 (2): 173-184.


    Arbesman, M.,L. Kahler, and G.M. Buck. (1993) “Assessment

    of the Impact of Female Circumcision on the Gynecological, Genitourinary

    and Obstetrical Health Problems of Women from Somalia: Literature

    Review and Case Series.” Women and Health 20:27-42.

    Gallo (Grassivaro-Gallo), P.G. (1985) “Female Circumcision

    in Somalia: Some Psychological Aspects.” Genus 41:133-147.


    Almroth, Lars et al. (2001) “A Community Based Study on the

    Change of Practice of Female Genital Mutilation in a Sudanese Village.”

    International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 74: 179-185,


    Gruenbaum, Ellen. (1982) “The Movement Against Clitoridectomy

    and Infibulation in Sudan: Public Health Policy and the Women’s

    Movement.” Medical Anthropology Newsletter 13:4-12.

    Hassan, Amna A.R. (2000) “FGM psycho-socio-sexual consequences

    among Sudanese women in Khartoum state.” Ph.D. dissertation,

    (319) pages. Africa International University, Khartoum, Sudan. Published

    in Arabic.

    Mustafa, A.Z. (1966) “Female Circumcision and Infibulation

    in the Sudan.” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, British

    Commonwealth 73:302-306.

    Sami, I.R. (1986) “Female Circumcision with Special Reference

    to the Sudan.” Annals of Tropical Medicine 6:99-115.


    Jager, Fabienne, Sylvie Schulze and Patrick Hohlfeld. (2002) “Female

    Genital Mutilation in Switzerland: A Survey Among Gynaecologists.”

    Swiss Medical Weekly 132:259-264.

    United Kingdom

    Momoh C, Ladhani S, Lochrie DP, Rymer J. (2001) “Female Genital

    Mutilation: Analysis of the First Twelve Months of a Southeast London

    Specialist Clinic.” British Journal of Gynaecology 108:186-91.