Medical Perspectives on Female Genital Cutting
Listed in order of area and country-specific
Research topics include FGM and cosmetic surgery, de-infibulation,
male complications of FGM, medicalization, FGM and pregnancy complications,
and psycho-socio-sexual complications.
Almroth, Lars et al. (2001) “Male Complications of Female
Genital Mutilation.” Social Science & Medicine. 53: 1455-1460.
Aguga, N.E.N., and V.E. Egwuatu. (1982) “Female Circumcision:
Management of Urinary Complications.” Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Aziz, F.A. (1980) “Gynecologic and Obstetric Complications
of Female Circumcision.” International Journal of Gynecology
and Obstetrics. 17: 560-563.
Daw, E. (1970) “Female Circumcision and Infibulation Complicating
Delivery.” The Practitioner 204:559-563.
De Silva, S. (1989) “Obstetric Sequelae of Female Circumcision.”
European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
Dewhurst, C.J. (1964) “Infibulation Complicating Pregnancy.”
British Medical Journal 2:1442.
Dirie, Dr. Mahdi and Dr. Gunilla Lindmark. (1991) “A Hospital
Study of the Complications of Female Circumcision.” Tropical
Doctor 21: 146-148.
Douglas, John H. (1998) “Female Circumcision: Persistence
Amid Conflict.” Health Care for Women Internationally. 6:477-479.
Duncan, Bettina-Shell. (2001) “The Medicalization of Female
‘Circumcision’: Harm Reduction or Promotion of a Dangerous Practice?”
Social Science & Medicine 52: 1013-1028.
Epstein D, Graham P, Rimsza M. (2001) “Medical Complications
of Female Genital Mutilation.” J Am Coll Health 49:275-80.
Hosken, F. (1976) “Female Circumcision and Fertility in Africa.”
Women and Health 1:3-11.
Hosken, F. (1978) “The epidemiology of Female Genital Mutilations.”
Tropical Doctor 8:150-156.
Lenzi, E. (1970) “Damage Caused by Infibulation and Infertility.”
Acta European Fertility 2:47-58.
Meniru, G.I. (1994). “Female Genital Mutilation (female circumcision).”
British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 101: 832.
Morris, R. (1996) “The Culture of Female Circumcision.”
Advances in Nursing Science 19:43-53.
Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf et. Al. “Female Genital Surgeries:
The Known, The Unknown, and the Unknowable.” Medical Anthropology
Quarterly 13(1): 79-106.
Ruminjo, J. (1992) “Circumcision in Women.” East African
Medical Journal (September): 477-478.
Rouzi AA, Aljhadali EA, Amarin ZO, Abul jabbar HS. (2001) “The
Use of Intrapartum Defibulation in Women with Female Genital Mutilation.”
British Journal of Gynaecology
Scwartz, R.L. (1994) “Multiculturalism, Medicine, and the Limits
of Autonomy: The Practice of Female Circumcision.” Cambridge
Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 3:431-437.
Shandall, A. (1967) “Circumcision and Infibulation of Females.”
Sudan Medical Journal 5:178-212.
Sheldon, Sally and Stephen Wilkinson. “Female Genital Mutilation
and Cosmetic Surgery: Regulating Non-Therapeutic Body Modification.”
Bioethics. Vol. 12 (4): 263-285.
Toubia, Nahid. (1994) “Female Circumcision as a Public Health
Issue.” The New England Journal of Medicine. 331: 712.
Verzin, J.A. (1975) “Sequelae of Female Circumcision.”
Tropical Doctor 5:163-169.
Worsley, A. (1938) “Infibulation and Female Circumcision:
A Study of a Little Known Custom.” Journal of Obstetrics and
Gynaecology of the British Empire 45:686-691.
Geographic Focus of Research
Knight R, Hotchin A, Bayly C, Grover S. “Female Genital Mutilation-
Experience of the Royal Women’s Hospital, Melbourne.” Australia
New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol 39: 1.
Burkina Faso, Mali
Jones, Heidi, Nafissatou Diop, Ian Askew and Inoussa Kabore. “Female
Genital Cutting Practices in Burkina Faso and Mali and their Negative
Health Outcomes.” Studies in Family Planning 30: 219-30.
Chalmers B, Hashi KO. (2000) “432 Somali Women’s Birth Experiences
in Canada After Earlier Female Genital Mutilation.” Birth 27:
Dirie, Dr. Mahdi and Dr. Gunilla Lindmark. (1991) “Female
Circumcision in Somalia and Women’s Motives.” Acta Obstet Gynecol
Leonard, L. (1996) “Female Circumcision in Southern Chad:
Origins, Meanings and Current Practice.” Social Science and
Caldwell, J., I.O. Orubuloye, and P. Caldwell. (1997) Male and
Female Circumcision in Africa: From a Regional to a Specific Nigerian
Examination.” Social Science and Medicine 44:1181-1193.
Ebong. R. D. (1997) “Female Circumcision and its Health Implications:
A Study of the Iruan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.”
Health. Vol. 117:2.
Ogunlola IO, Orji EO, Owalabi AT. (2003) “Female Genital Mutilation
and the Unborn Female Child in Southwest Nigeria.” Journal
of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 23:143-5.
Okonofua, FE, Larsen U, Oronsaye F, Snow RC, Slanger TE. (2002)
“The Association Between Female Genital Cutting and Correlates
of Sexual and Gynaecological Morbidity in Edo State, Nigeria.”
British Journal of Gynaecology. 1089-1096.
Slanger, TE, Snow RC and Okonofua FE. (2002) “The Impact of
Female Genital Cutting on First Delivery in Southwest Nigeria.”
Studies in Family Planning 23 (2): 173-184.
Arbesman, M.,L. Kahler, and G.M. Buck. (1993) “Assessment
of the Impact of Female Circumcision on the Gynecological, Genitourinary
and Obstetrical Health Problems of Women from Somalia: Literature
Review and Case Series.” Women and Health 20:27-42.
Gallo (Grassivaro-Gallo), P.G. (1985) “Female Circumcision
in Somalia: Some Psychological Aspects.” Genus 41:133-147.
Almroth, Lars et al. (2001) “A Community Based Study on the
Change of Practice of Female Genital Mutilation in a Sudanese Village.”
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 74: 179-185,
Gruenbaum, Ellen. (1982) “The Movement Against Clitoridectomy
and Infibulation in Sudan: Public Health Policy and the Women’s
Movement.” Medical Anthropology Newsletter 13:4-12.
Hassan, Amna A.R. (2000) “FGM psycho-socio-sexual consequences
among Sudanese women in Khartoum state.” Ph.D. dissertation,
(319) pages. Africa International University, Khartoum, Sudan. Published
Mustafa, A.Z. (1966) “Female Circumcision and Infibulation
in the Sudan.” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, British
Sami, I.R. (1986) “Female Circumcision with Special Reference
to the Sudan.” Annals of Tropical Medicine 6:99-115.
Jager, Fabienne, Sylvie Schulze and Patrick Hohlfeld. (2002) “Female
Genital Mutilation in Switzerland: A Survey Among Gynaecologists.”
Swiss Medical Weekly 132:259-264.
Momoh C, Ladhani S, Lochrie DP, Rymer J. (2001) “Female Genital
Mutilation: Analysis of the First Twelve Months of a Southeast London
Specialist Clinic.” British Journal of Gynaecology 108:186-91.